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george i of england

His claim was challenged by James Stuart, Roman Catholic son of James II, who landed in Scotland in 1715, Philip was allowed to succeed to the Spanish throne but removed from the French line of succession, and the Elector of Bavaria was restored. At first Royal Assent was withheld, but the following year Anne capitulated to the wishes of the Estates and assent was granted to the bill, which became the Act of Security 1704. In 1718 the Holy Roman Empire was added to the body, which became known as the Quadruple Alliance. [35], George's distrust of the Tories aided the passing of power to the Whigs. He is the most recent British monarch to be buried outside the United Kingdom. [50] Walpole and Townshend were reappointed as ministers the following year and a new, supposedly unified, Whig government formed. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [54] Company prices rose rapidly; the shares had cost £128 on 1 January 1720,[55] but were valued at £500 when the conversion scheme opened in May. Since he could not speak English, he communicated with his ministers in French. One of the results of George's inability or disinterest in ruling the English was that he handed over his authority to trusted politicians. Born in Hanover to its Elector Ernest Augustus and Electress Sophia, George inherited the titles and lands of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg from his father and uncles. [53] The Company enticed bondholders to convert their high-interest, irredeemable bonds to low-interest, easily tradeable stocks by offering apparently preferential financial gains. They in turn, influenced British authors of the first half of the twentieth century such as G. K. Chesterton, who introduced further anti-German and anti-Protestant bias into the interpretation of George's reign. As a result, the Spanish and French thrones remained separate. [22] The emperor's death in 1711 threatened to destroy the balance of power in the opposite direction, so the war ended in 1713 with the ratification of the Treaty of Utrecht. [41] George and his son were later reconciled at the insistence of Robert Walpole and the desire of the Princess of Wales, who had moved out with her husband but missed her children, who had been left in the king's care. [78] He certainly spoke fluent German and French, good Latin, and some Italian and Dutch. [f] George I was buried in the chapel of Leine Palace in Hanover, but his remains were moved to the chapel at Herrenhausen Gardens after World War II. George Louis of Brunswick-Lüneburg was the son of Ernest Augustus, elector of Hanover, and Sophia of the Palatinate, a granddaughter of King James I of England. As part of the war effort, George invaded his neighbouring state, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, which was pro-French, writing out some of the battle orders himself. The subsequent War of the Quadruple Alliance involved the same issue as the War of the Spanish Succession. The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) had recognised the grandson of King Louis XIV of France, Philip, as king of Spain on the condition that he gave up his rights to succeed to the French throne. [75] In subsequent reigns the power of the prime minister increased further at the expense of the power of the sovereign. After the rebellion was defeated, although there were some executions and forfeitures, George acted to moderate the Government's response, showed leniency, and spent the income from the forfeited estates on schools for Scotland and paying off part of the national debt. He succeeded his father as elector of Hanover in 1698. [61] George, who had been in Hanover since June, returned to London in November—sooner than he wanted or was usual—at the request of the ministry.[62]. George's life and reign were re-explored by scholars such as Beattie and Hatton, and his character, abilities and motives re-assessed in a more generous light. In response the English Parliament passed the Alien Act 1705, which threatened to restrict Anglo-Scottish trade and cripple the Scottish economy if the Estates did not agree to the Hanoverian succession. "[5] Whatever his true character, he ascended a precarious throne, and either by political wisdom and guile, or through accident and indifference, he left it secure in the hands of the Hanoverians and of Parliament. After the deaths in 1714 of his mother and his second cousin Anne, Queen of Great Britain, George ascended the British throne as Anne's closest living Protestant relative under the Act of Settlement 1701. William III died the following March and was succeeded by Anne. He introduced a Peerage Bill that attempted to limit the size of the House of Lords by restricting new creations. [45] The clansmen dispersed into the Highlands, and the Spaniards surrendered. Shortly after George's accession to his paternal duchy, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, who was second-in-line to the English and Scottish thrones, died. The Jacobites were poorly equipped and were easily defeated by British artillery at the Battle of Glen Shiel. The English Parliament’s Act of Settlement (1701), seeking to ensure a Protestant succession to the throne in opposition to the exiled Roman Catholic claimant (James Edward, the Old Pretender), made George third in line for the throne after Princess Anne (queen from 1702–14) and his mother. The invasion succeeded with few lives lost. [18], Shortly after George's accession in Hanover, the War of the Spanish Succession broke out. [63] In 1721 Lord Stanhope, though personally innocent,[64][65] collapsed and died after a stressful debate in the House of Lords, and Lord Sunderland resigned from public office. [46], In Hanover, the king was an absolute monarch. Ugly rumours concerning his treatment of his wife were widely disseminated, and the greed of his two German mistresses reflected badly on his court. His mother at first opposed the marriage because she looked down on Sophia Dorothea's mother, Eleonore (who came from lower nobility), and because she was concerned by Sophia Dorothea's legitimated status. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In 1703, the Estates passed a bill declaring that their selection for Queen Anne's successor would not be the same individual as the successor to the English throne, unless England granted full freedom of trade to Scottish merchants in England and its colonies. [59] With the rise in the market now halted,[60] uncontrolled selling began in August, which caused the stock to plummet to £150 by the end of September. [17] In the same year, George's surviving uncle died and he inherited further German dominions: the Principality of Lüneburg-Grubenhagen, centred at Celle. [33] During all but the first of the king's absences power was vested in a Regency Council rather than in his son, George Augustus, Prince of Wales. These rebel colonies would eventually band together to form the United States of America. When Georg Ludwig, elector of Hanover, became king of Great Britain on August 1, 1714, the country was in some respects bitterly divided. [32] His treatment of his wife, Sophia Dorothea, became something of a scandal. [4] Sophia bore Ernest Augustus another four sons and a daughter. [11] However, sources in Hanover itself, including Sophia, denied any knowledge of Königsmarck's whereabouts.[10]. – geboren als Herzog Georg Ludwig von Braunschweig-Lüneburg – (* 28. George married his cousin Sophia Dorothea of Celle in 1682, but in 1694, accusing her of infidelity, he divorced her and imprisoned her in the castle of Ahlden, where she died 32 years later. He was more than fifty years of age when he came amongst us: we took him because we wanted him, because he served our turn; we laughed at his uncouth German ways, and sneered at him. I, for one, would have been on his side in those days. By the terms of the English Act of Settlement 1701, George's mother, Sophia, was designated as the heir to the English throne if the then reigning monarch, William III, and his sister-in-law, Anne, died without surviving issue. The Holy Roman Empire, the United Dutch Provinces, England, Hanover and many other German states opposed Philip's right to succeed because they feared that the French House of Bourbon would become too powerful if it also controlled Spain. Sophia was the granddaughter of King James I of England through her mother, Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia. The economic crisis, known as the South Sea Bubble, made George and his ministers extremely unpopular. [67] Claims that George had received free stock as a bribe[68] are not supported by evidence; indeed receipts in the Royal Archives show that he paid for his subscriptions and that he lost money in the crash. Unlike his predecessor, Queen Anne, George rarely attended meetings of the cabinet; most of his communications were in private, and he only exercised substantial influence with respect to British foreign policy. [14] The likelihood of any of them converting to Protestantism for the sake of the succession was remote; some had already refused. When George’s mother died on June 8, 1714, he became heir to the throne, and on the death of Queen Anne (Aug. 1, 1714) the Whigs, who had just gained control of the government, ushered him into power. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14) George fought with distinction against the French. George was born on 28 May 1660 in the city of Hanover in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire. George I, in full George Louis, German Georg Ludwig, (born May 28, 1660, Osnabrück, Hanover [Germany]—died June 11, 1727, Osnabrück), elector of Hanover (1698–1727) and first Hanoverian king of Great Britain (1714–27). In 1717 Townshend was dismissed, and Walpole resigned from the Cabinet over disagreements with their colleagues;[48] Stanhope became supreme in foreign affairs, and Sunderland the same in domestic matters. He had little difficulty in communicating with his ministers in French, and his interest in all matters affecting both foreign policy and the court was profound. Several members of the defeated Tory Party sympathised with the Jacobites, who sought to replace George with Anne's Catholic half-brother, James Francis Edward Stuart (called "James III and VIII" by his supporters and "the Pretender" by his opponents). George remained Lutheran but was the head of the Church of England (Anglican Church) and the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian Church). Corrections? By the end of the year the rebellion had all but collapsed. [69], As requested by Walpole, George revived the Order of the Bath in 1725, which enabled Walpole to reward or gain political supporters by offering them the honour. Fifty-six Catholics with superior hereditary claims were bypassed. im Leineschloss, Hannover, Fürstentum Calenberg; † 11. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Although the Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1719 were readily suppressed, he was far from popular in England. [70] Walpole became extremely powerful and was largely able to appoint ministers of his own choosing. Ernest Augustus died on 23 January 1698, leaving all of his territories to George with the exception of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück, an office he had held since 1661. George Louis of Brunswick-Lüneburg was the son of Ernest Augustus, elector of Hanover, and Sophia of the Palatinate, a granddaughter of King James I of England. The Prince was told to leave the royal residence, St. James's Palace. However, Walpole commanded a substantial majority in Parliament and George II had little choice but to retain him or risk ministerial instability. The list of regents was opened, the members sworn in, and George was proclaimed King of Great Britain and Ireland. Mai jul. ", This page was last edited on 4 November 2020, at 13:53. However, in the wake of World War II continental European archives were opened to historians of the later twentieth century and nationalistic anti-German feeling subsided. Walpole was actually afraid of being removed from office towards the end of George I's reign,[72] but such fears were put to an end when George died during his sixth trip to his native Hanover since his accession as king. George I (1714-27) was magnificently unsuited to rule England. He suffered a stroke on the road between Delden and Nordhorn on 9 June 1727,[73] and was taken by carriage to the Prince-Bishop's palace at Osnabrück[e] where he died in the early hours before dawn on 11 June 1727. George was succeeded by his son, George Augustus, who took the throne as George II. His tenure was not altogether successful, partly because he was deceived by his ally, the Duke of Marlborough, into a diversionary attack, and partly because Emperor Joseph I appropriated the funds necessary for George's campaign for his own use. Despite this, the German princes thought he had acquitted himself well. At issue was the right of Philip, the grandson of King Louis XIV of France, to succeed to the Spanish throne under the terms of King Charles II of Spain's will. https://www.britannica.com/biography/George-I-king-of-Great-Britain, Undiscovered Scotland - Biography of George I, The Home of the Royal Family - Biography of George I, George I - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), George I - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). By joining with George’s son, the prince of Wales (later King George II), whom the king detested, these dissidents formed an effective opposition movement within the Whig Party. [c] George thus became Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (also known as Hanover, after its capital) as well as Archbannerbearer and a Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire. Abroad, Britain’s involvement in the War of the Spanish…. George was active in directing British foreign policy during his early reign. [84][85][86], In addition to Melusine von der Schulenburg, three other women were said to be George's mistresses:[90][91], King of Great Britain, Elector of Hanover, Throughout George's life, Great Britain used the, The story that George I died in the same room as that in which he was born at. [50], Greater problems arose over financial speculation and the management of the national debt. In 1708 they formally confirmed George's position as a Prince-Elector in recognition of, or because of, his service. In 1716–17 Townshend and Walpole left his government in protest over Stanhope’s alleged efforts to mold English foreign policy to the needs of George’s Hanoverian possessions. He spoke not a word of English, and his slow, pedantic nature did not sit well with the English. In 1710 he was granted the dignity of Arch-Treasurer of the Empire,[21] an office formerly held by the Elector Palatine; the absence of the Elector of Bavaria allowed a reshuffling of offices. [56] On 24 June the price reached a peak of £1,050. As a result, George was forced to give Walpole and Townshend a free hand in the ministry. In addition to his son and successor, George II, he had a daughter, Sophia Dorothea (1687–1757), wife of King Frederick William I of Prussia and mother of Frederick the Great. During George's reign, the powers of the monarchy diminished and Britain began a transition to the modern system of cabinet government led by a prime minister. 77, 104; and Hatton, p. 251, Dickinson, p. 59 and Erleigh, pp. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Parliament of Scotland (the Estates) had not formally settled the succession question for the Scottish throne. 147–155 and Williams, p. 177, Erleigh, p. 129; Hatton, p. 255 and Williams, p. 176, Black, pp. George was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 20 October. Sophia was in her seventy-first year, thirty-five years older than Anne, but she was very fit and healthy and invested time and energy in securing the succession either for herself or for her son. 19–20, and Dickinson, pp. [36] Whig dominance grew to be so great under George that the Tories did not return to power for another half-century. . This led to a breach between Frederick Augustus and his father, and between the brothers, that lasted until his death in battle in 1690. George's surviving uncle, George William of Celle, had married his mistress in order to legitimise his only daughter, Sophia Dorothea, but looked unlikely to have any further children. She had collapsed in the gardens at Herrenhausen after rushing to shelter from a shower of rain. George Augustus, Prince of Wales, encouraged opposition to his father's policies, including measures designed to increase religious freedom in Britain and expand Hanover's German territories at Sweden's expense. But upon Louis XIV's death in 1715, Philip sought to overturn the treaty. Fundamentally, however, it was prosperous, cohesive, and already a leading European and imperial power. Updates? Towards the end of his reign, actual political power was held by Robert Walpole, now recognised as Britain's first de facto prime minister. In the ensuing scandal it became apparent that George and his mistresses had taken part in South Sea Company transactions of questionable legality, but Walpole’s skill in handling the House of Commons saved the king from disgrace. James's supporters, led by Lord Mar, an embittered Scottish nobleman who had previously served as a secretary of state, instigated rebellion in Scotland where support for Jacobitism was stronger than in England. After the election, the Whig-dominated Parliament passed the Septennial Act 1715, which extended the maximum duration of Parliament to seven years (although it could be dissolved earlier by the Sovereign). Gibbs, G. C. (September 2004; online edn, January 2006), Carswell, p. 104; Hatton, p. 249 and Williams, p. 176, Carswell, pp. But after the quarrel at the baptism, father and son were never again on cordial terms.[42]. Their mother was absent for almost a year (1664–65) during a long convalescent holiday in Italy, but corresponded regularly with her sons' governess and took a great interest in their upbringing, even more so upon her return. Married 1707 Ernst August Philipp von dem Bussche-Ippenburg (divorced before 1714); Created Countess of Walsingham for life; married 1733, Leonora von Meyseburg-Züschen, widow of a. Baroness Sophie Caroline Eva Antoinette von Offeln (2 November 1669 – 23 January 1726), Ellis, Kenneth L. "The administrative connections between Britain and Hanover. In her letters, Sophia describes George as a responsible, conscientious child who set an example to his younger brothers and sisters. [b] He was the eldest son of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and his wife, Sophia of the Palatinate. Certain government bonds could not be redeemed without the consent of the bondholder and had been issued when interest rates were high; consequently each bond represented a long-term drain on public finances, as bonds were hardly ever redeemed. Walpole became de facto Prime Minister, although the title was not formally applied to him (officially, he was First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer). [28] Partly due to contrary winds, which kept him in The Hague awaiting passage,[29] he did not arrive in Britain until 18 September. Naturally, George formed a predominantly Whig ministry. George I (George Louis; German: Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[a] was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 23 January 1698 until his death in 1727. [23] Eventually, in 1707, both Parliaments agreed on an Act of Union, which united England and Scotland into a single political entity, the Kingdom of Great Britain, and established the rules of succession as laid down by the Act of Settlement 1701. She was, however, endowed with an income, establishment, and servants, and allowed to ride in a carriage outside her castle under supervision. The measure would have solidified Sunderland's control of the House by preventing the creation of opposition peers, but it was defeated after Walpole led the opposition to the bill by delivering what was considered "the most brilliant speech of his career". George III's reign as King of England was marred by the loss of many of Great Britain's colonies in North America during the American Revolution. All government expenditure above 50 thalers (between 12 and 13 British pounds), and the appointment of all army officers, all ministers, and even government officials above the level of copyist, was in his personal control. [10] Later rumours supposed that Königsmarck was hacked to pieces and buried beneath the Hanover palace floorboards. Georg I. There were some 50 Roman Catholic relatives with stronger claims. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Under Salic law, where inheritance of territory was restricted to the male line, the succession of George and his brothers to the territories of their father and uncle now seemed secure. Il fut antérieurement élevé à la condition de duc de Brunswick-Lunebourg et de prince-électeur du Saint-Empire romain germanique à partir de 1698. They pushed several of the king’s friends out of office, and by 1724 George had come to rely completely on their judgment. He swiftly revised the membership of the Regency Council that would take power after Anne's death, as it was known that Anne's health was failing and politicians in Britain were jostling for power. Nevertheless, he often found it difficult to get his way in domestic politics, in which he had to deal with such strong-willed ministers as Robert Walpole (later earl of Orford), James Stanhope, and Viscount Charles Townshend. Back home in England, the formerly separate countries of Great Britain and Ireland were finally joined together to form the United Kingdom. As a reward, the prior Hanoverian annexation of the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg by George's uncle was recognised by the British and Dutch. [27] She suffered a stroke, which left her unable to speak, and died on 1 August 1714. In 1709 George resigned as field marshal, never to go on active service again. Premium Membership is now 50% off! / 22. Juni jul. [39] In 1717 the birth of a grandson led to a major quarrel between George and the Prince of Wales. [3] His coronation was accompanied by rioting in over twenty towns in England. England’s Whig politicians began to court his favour, but many Tories remained loyal to the Old Pretender. 151–152; Dickinson, p. 58; and Hatton, p. 250, Dickinson, p. 58; Erleigh, pp. [37] Thus Whigs already in power could remain in such a position for a greater period of time. [66] Through Walpole's skilful management of Parliament, George managed to avoid direct implication in the Company's fraudulent actions. The following year, Frederick Augustus was informed of the adoption of primogeniture, meaning he would no longer receive part of his father's territory as he had expected. By contrast in Great Britain, George had to govern through Parliament. George's marriage to Sophia Dorothea was dissolved, not on the grounds that either of them had committed adultery, but on the grounds that Sophia Dorothea had abandoned her husband. George refused to allow mourning in Hanover or England and was enfuriated when he heard that his daughter Sophia's Prussian court had decided to wear black in her honour. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... There’s a first time for everything—and there’s a lot of everything across all of history. Cynical and selfish, as he was, he was better than a king out of St. Germains [James, the Stuart Pretender] with the French king's orders in his pocket, and a swarm of Jesuits in his train.[81]. The succession was so designed because Sophia was the closest Protestant relative of the British royal family. [30], George mainly lived in Great Britain after 1714, though he visited his home in Hanover in 1716, 1719, 1720, 1723 and 1725;[31] in total George spent about one fifth of his reign as king in Germany. [15], In August 1701 George was invested with the Order of the Garter and, within six weeks, the nearest Catholic claimant to the thrones, the former king James II, died. Omissions? The king was angered when the Prince of Wales, disliking Newcastle, verbally insulted the Duke at the christening, which the Duke misunderstood as a challenge to a duel. The murder was claimed to have been committed by four of Ernest Augustus's courtiers, one of whom, Don Nicolò Montalbano, was paid the enormous sum of 150,000 thalers, about one hundred times the annual salary of the highest-paid minister. [44] Jacobite attempts to recruit Scottish clansmen yielded a fighting force of only about a thousand men. [83], Yet the character of George I remains elusive; he was in turn genial and affectionate in private letters to his daughter, and then dull and awkward in public. In 1717 he contributed to the creation of the Triple Alliance, an anti-Spanish league composed of Great Britain, France and the Dutch Republic. She was denied access to her children and father, forbidden to remarry and only allowed to walk unaccompanied within the mansion courtyard. With the imminent formation of a single Hanoverian state, and the Hanoverians' continuing contributions to the Empire's wars, Ernest Augustus was made an Elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692. [43] A base was established at Eilean Donan Castle on the west Scottish coast in April, only to be destroyed by British ships a month later. 72, 90–96, Erleigh, pp. George I er (né Georg Ludwig ; Hanovre, 28 mai 1660 – 11 juin 1727 [N 1], Osnabrück) fut roi de Grande-Bretagne du 1 er août 1714 jusqu'à sa mort. The following year, George was invested as an Imperial Field Marshal with command of the imperial army stationed along the Rhine. With the French now fighting against him, Philip's armies fared poorly. The invasion never posed any serious threat to George's government. She was eventually won over by the advantages inherent in the marriage. He attempted diligently, however, to fulfill his obligations to his new kingdom. George was ridiculed by his British subjects;[76] some of his contemporaries, such as Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, thought him unintelligent on the grounds that he was wooden in public. George died of a stroke on a trip to his native Hanover, where he was buried. The Swedish territories of Bremen and Verden were ceded to Hanover in 1719, with Hanover paying Sweden monetary compensation for the loss of territory. [79], The British perceived George as too German, and in the opinion of historian Ragnhild Hatton, wrongly assumed that he had a succession of German mistresses. [49], Lord Sunderland's power began to wane in 1719. "This declaration was meant to scotch any Whig interpretation that parliament had given him the kingdom [and] ... convince the Tories that he was no usurper. In February 1716, facing defeat, James and Lord Mar fled to France. [77] Though he was unpopular in Great Britain due to his supposed inability to speak English, such an inability may not have existed later in his reign as documents from that time show that he understood, spoke and wrote English. Although he stopped attending Cabinet meetings, he met with key ministers in private—a step that led to the decline of the Cabinet, which had largely controlled the government during Queen Anne’s reign. According to diplomatic sources from Hanover's enemies, in July 1694 the Swedish count was killed, possibly with George's connivance, and his body thrown into the river Leine weighted with stones. Sophia became heiress presumptive to the new Queen of England. [5], By 1675 George's eldest uncle had died without issue, but his remaining two uncles had married, putting George's inheritance in jeopardy as his uncles' estates might pass to their own sons, should they have had any, instead of to George. With her father's agreement, George had Sophia Dorothea imprisoned in Ahlden House in her native Celle, where she stayed until she died more than thirty years later. Spain supported a Jacobite-led invasion of Scotland in 1719, but stormy seas allowed only about three hundred Spanish troops to reach Scotland. George married his cousin Sophia Dorothea of Celle in 1682, but in 1694, accusing her of infidelity, he divorced her and imprisoned her in the castle of Ahlden, where she died 32 years later. George was happy to leave the affairs of Great … Threatened with the scandal of an elopement, the Hanoverian court, including George's brothers and mother, urged the lovers to desist, but to no avail. George was now Queen Anne's heir presumptive. Simultaneously, Hanover gained from the resolution of the Great Northern War, which had been caused by rivalry between Sweden and Russia for control of the Baltic. [51] In 1719 the South Sea Company proposed to take over £31 million (three fifths) of the British national debt by exchanging government securities for stock in the company. George's father took him hunting and riding, and introduced him to military matters; mindful of his uncertain future, Ernest Augustus took the fifteen-year-old George on campaign in the Franco-Dutch War with the deliberate purpose of testing and training his son in battle. "[26], George's mother, the Electress Sophia, died on 28 May 1714[d] at the age of 83. Jacobites attempted, but failed, to depose George and replace him with James Francis Edward Stuart, Anne's Catholic half-brother. His shrewd diplomatic judgment enabled him to help forge an alliance with France in 1717–18. George died of a stroke on a trip to Hanover. / 7. George's prospects were now better than ever as the sole heir to his father's electorate and his uncle's duchy. [52] The Company bribed Lord Sunderland, George's mistress Melusine von der Schulenburg, and Lord Stanhope's cousin, Secretary of the Treasury Charles Stanhope, to support their plan.

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