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juan ii comneno

Emperor Lothair III had Byzantine backing, including a large financial subsidy, for his invasion of Norman territory in 1136, which reached as far south as Bari. [44][45][46] The Byzantines were confirmed in their control of Braničevo, Belgrade and Zemun and they also recovered the region of Sirmium (called Frangochorion in Choniates), which had been Hungarian since the 1060s. [1]​ También derrotó a Hungría y Serbia. [a], The Latin historian William of Tyre described John as short and unusually ugly, with eyes, hair and complexion so dark he was known as 'the Moor'. A Hungarian alliance with the Serbs produced serious consequences for continued Byzantine dominance in the western Balkans. John's marriage policy, of bringing new families into the imperial orbit, may have been directed towards lessening the influence of certain prominent aristocratic clans, such as the Doukas, Diogenes and Melissenos families, some of which had produced emperors themselves in the past. [3]​ Desafortunadamente, el reinado de Juan es menos conocido que el de su padre Alejo I, o su hijo, Manuel I, por la existencia de menos fuentes contemporáneas o cercanas en el tiempo. John II Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos; 13 September 1087 – 8 April 1143) was Byzantine emperor from 1118 to 1143. The ensuing Battle of Beroia was hard fought, John was wounded in the leg by an arrow, but by the end of the day the Byzantine army had won a crushing victory. He then assembled his armed followers and rode to the Great Palace, gathering the support of the citizenry on the way. Birkenmeier argues that John's strategy of launching annual campaigns with limited, realistic objectives was a more sensible one than that followed by his son Manuel I. Irene was born in 1066. Angold, Michael, (1995) Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081-1261. The welcome accorded to ousted claimants of the Hungarian throne in Constantinople was seen by the Byzantines as a useful insurance policy and source of political leverage. He died a number of days after the accident, on April 8, probably of septicaemia. The Byzantines were defeated by the conditions rather than by the Turks: the weather was very bad, large numbers of the army's horses died, and provisions became scarce. Also known as "John the Beautiful" or "John the Good" (Kaloïōannēs), he was the eldest son of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Irene Doukaina and the second emperor to rule during the Komnenian restoration of the Byzantine Empire. In the reign of Alexios I sebastokratores had wielded considerable power and Isaac would have had an expectation of a similar level of authority being devolved on himself. He undertook annual campaigns against the Danishmendid emirate in Malatya on the upper Euphrates from 1130 to 1135. Revocó los privilegios comerciales de los… En el curso de sus veinticinco años de reinado, Juan se alió con el Sacro Imperio Romano en el oeste, e intervino en los Balcanes aplastando a los restos de los pechenegos (1122), hasta el punto de que dejaron de ser un pueblo independiente. The Hungarian pretender Álmos died in 1129, removing the major source of friction. The primary sources, Kinnamos and Choniates, give little detail about this campaign, no dates are specified, and what they do say differs considerably. Under John, the empire's population recovered to about 10 million people. This was a radical departure from the methods of his father, who had used the imperial family and its many connections to fill almost all senior administrative and military posts. [19], The increase in military security and economic stability within Byzantine western Anatolia created by John II's campaigns allowed him to begin the establishment of a formal provincial system in these regions. In the palace John was acclaimed emperor. The Development of the Komnenian Army: 1081–1180. Aleppo proved too strong to attack, but the fortresses of Balat, Biza'a, Athareb, Maarat al-Numan, and Kafartab were taken by assault. John appointed a number of his father's personal retainers to senior administrative posts, men such as Eustathios Kamytzes, Michaelitzes Styppeiotes and George Dekanos. Adrian had become a monk, adopting the monastic name John, and had accompanied the emperor on his campaigns of 1138. [c] John's final action as emperor was to choose Manuel, the younger of his surviving sons, to be his successor. [68], Overall, it is clear that John II Komnenos left the empire a great deal better off than he had found it. John has been assessed as the greatest of the Komnenian emperors. En realidad, los motivos por los que se pelearon no parecen para tanto. However, Nikephoros remained on good terms with his brother-in-law. According to this view, John's campaigns benefited the Byzantine Empire because they protected the empire's heartland, which lacked reliable borders, while gradually extending its territory in Asia Minor. Muchos de ellos, cautivos en el conflicto, se establecieron como soldados-granjeros dentro de las fronteras bizantinas. Revisa las traducciones de 'Juan II Comneno' en Gallego. John re-confirmed the treaty of 1082, in August 1126. In particular little is known of the history of John's domestic rule or policies. [12][13] One of the very few records of John's own words concerns the plot against him; he says that after ascending the throne, God "destroyed the cunning plots of my visible and invisible enemies and rescued me from every trap subjecting all my enemies under my feet". During Alexios' final illness both wife and daughter exploited his physical weakness to apply pressure on him in support of their agenda for the succession. A pesar del gran vigor personal con el que impulsó la campaña, sus esperanzas quedaron en nada ante las evasivas de sus aliados cruzados y su poca disposición para luchar junto a sus fuerzas en el asedio de Shaizar. Juan II Comneno, emperador bizantino (13 de septiembre de 1087 - 8 de abril de 1143), hijo y sucesor de Alejo I Comneno. War with the Hungarians and Serbs (1127–1129 – chronology uncertain), War of attrition against the Anatolian Turks (1119–20, 1130–35, 1139–40), Campaigning in Cilicia and Syria (1137–1138), Alexios I was the subject of an extensive biography, the. Planeaba un nuevo avance hacia Siria y Palestina cuando fue herido mortalmente en un accidente de caza. [64] However, there is very little overt support for this hypothesis in the primary sources. John II Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos; September 13, 1087 – 8 April 1143) was Byzantine Emperor from 1118 to 1143. [8] Anna, who in infancy had been betrothed to her father's first co-emperor Constantine Doukas, herself harboured obvious aspirations to power and the throne. [28][61] This lukewarm response resulted in John II deciding to postpone his pilgrimage. [5] Charity was dispensed lavishly. When John tried to seize Isaac, the latter escaped and fled to the Danishmend emir Ghazi, who received him, and later sent him to the breakaway Byzantine regime of the Gabrades in Trebizond. Anna was stripped of her property, which was offered to the emperor's friend John Axouch. However, this alliance proved unable to resist Roger, who extracted by force a recognition of his royal title from the Pope in 1139 (Treaty of Mignano). Hijo de Alejo I Comneno, se propuso como objetivo reconquistar el territorio bizantino que había caído en manos de árabes, turcos y cruzados. Alexios endured these constant demands without formally changing his intended successor. [2]​ Durante su reinado la población del Imperio se recuperó hasta aproximadamente 10 millones de habitantes. Juan II Comneno, (Griego: Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos, 13 de septiembre de 1087-8 de abril de 1143), fue emperador bizantino entre 1118 y 1143. [4], John II succeeded his father as ruling basileus in 1118, but had already been crowned co-emperor by Alexios I between 1 September and early November, 1092. The decisive moment of the battle was when John led the Varangian Guard, largely composed of Englishmen, to assault defensive Pecheneg wagon laager, employing their famous axes to hack their way in. La primera fue la división entre la Iglesia de Roma, liderada por el Papa, y la Iglesia Ortodoxa, liderada por el patriarca de Constantinopla. Yet the change in policy was not motivated by financial concerns. [65][66] Another theory alleges that the reason for this choice was the AIMA prophecy, which foretold that John's successor should be one whose name began with an "M". [26], In the East John attempted, like his father, to exploit the differences between the Seljuq Sultan of Iconium and the Danishmendid dynasty controlling the northeastern, inland, parts of Anatolia. He is considered an exceptional example of a moral ruler, at a time when cruelty was the norm. The Crusader Princes were suspicious of each other and of John, and neither wanted the other to gain from participating in the campaign. As Alexios lay dying in the monastery of the Mangana on 15 August 1118, John, relying on trusted relatives, especially his brother Isaac Komnenos, gained entry into the monastery and obtained the imperial signet ring from his father. [15], The family intrigues that challenged his succession to the throne probably contributed to John's approach to rulership, which was to appoint men from outside the imperial family to high office. [37], Following the end of hostilities with Hungary, John was able to concentrate on Asia Minor during most of his remaining years. Irene, taken by surprise, was unable either to persuade her son to step down, or to induce Nikephoros to contend for the throne. [60] This expedition included a planned pilgrimage to Jerusalem on which he intended to take his army. That Alexios I favoured John to succeed him is made obvious by the elevation of his son to the position of co-emperor. Brill. With trusted advisors of his own choosing, such as John Axouch, and later the support of his son and co-emperor, Alexios, John II offered no meaningful role to Isaac in the governance of the empire. '[16] Such an appointment was remarkable, and a radical departure from the nepotism that had characterised the reign of Alexios I. They had one son: Andrónico Comneno de Hungría. Isaac aimed at replacing his brother as emperor. In the extensive artwork that Isaac commissioned, he made much of his porphyrogenete status and his relationship with his imperial father, Alexios I, but he made little or no reference to his relationship to his brother John, or to the title of sebastokrator that he had received from him. John had lost all confidence in his allies, and a Muslim army under Zengi was approaching to try to relieve the city, therefore the emperor reluctantly accepted the offer. In giving asylum to Álmos, a blinded claimant to the Hungarian throne, John aroused the suspicion of the Hungarians. Juan … Antes de la llegada de la dinastía de los Comnenos, el Imperio bizantino vivió muchas cosas que marcaron su historia y su futuro. John refused to attend his father's funeral, despite the pleas of his mother, because he feared a counter-coup. In 1132 John had to return from campaign in haste, when news reached him that conspirators in Constantinople had made an appeal to Isaac to become their ruler. Two rather ambiguous Byzantine rhetorical allusions were the basis of this theory – all contemporary historical writing unanimously agrees on an accidental cause for the death of John II. It has been suggested that references to Axouch's possession of the imperial seal early in the reign of John's successor Manuel I meant that he was, in addition to his military duties, the head of the civil administration of the Empire. En Oriente logró imponer su autoridad sobre el Principado de Antioquía, y sobre los estratégicos condados de Edesa y Trípoli. John surrounded the Pechenegs as they burst into Thrace, tricked them into believing that he would grant them a favourable treaty, and then launched a devastating surprise attack upon their fortified camp. Menos éxito tuvo en su intervención en las luchas entre pisanos y genoveses, sin lograr ayuda de ninguno para aliviar el dominio veneciano del comercio bizantino. [13] A number of 'new men' were raised to prominence by John II, these included Gregory Taronites who was appointed protovestiarios, Manuel Anemas and Theodore Vatatzes, the latter two also became his sons-in-law. [37], After his accession, John II had refused to confirm his father's 1082 treaty with the Republic of Venice, which had given the Italian republic unique and generous trading rights within the Byzantine Empire. The food served at the emperor's table was very frugal and John lectured courtiers who lived in excessive luxury. The Serbs were forced to acknowledge Byzantine suzerainty once again. This was done partly to cow the Serbs into submission (Serbia was, at least nominally, a Byzantine protectorate), and partly to strengthen the Byzantine frontier in the east against the Turks. Such a coalition did not materialise, but Isaac seems to have retained strong support in Constantinople. The theme (province) of Thrakesion was re-established, with its administrative centre at Philadelphia. Juan married Irene Comneno Ducas (born de Hungría). The brothers were briefly reconciled in 1138, and Isaac returned to Constantinople; however, a year later Isaac was exiled to Heraclea Pontica, where he remained for the rest of John's life. [15][36] The battle put an effective end to the Pechenegs as an independent people; many of the captives taken in the conflict were settled as soldier-farmers within the Byzantine frontier. All accounts agree that he was a faithful husband to his wife, an unusual trait in a medieval ruler. Komnenian restoration of the Byzantine Empire, Mosaic of John Komnenos, Eirene and Alexios in Hagia Sophia, Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Thessaloniki, Theodora Megale Komnene ("Despina Khatun"), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_II_Komnenos&oldid=991111887, Byzantine people of the Byzantine–Seljuq Wars, Burials at the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator (Constantinople), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Maria Komnene (twin to Alexios), who married, Bucossi, Alessandra and Suarez, Alex R. (2016), Linardou, K. (2016) "Imperial Impersonations", in, Magdalino, P. (2016) "The Triumph of 1133", in, Stathakopoulos, D. (2016) "John II Komnenos: a historiographical essay", in, Bucossi, Alessandra and Rodriguez Suarez, (2016), This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 09:28. Soon afterwards, Adrian was appointed Archbishop of Bulgaria as John IV of Ohrid. With the season well advanced John decided to take his army into winter quarters in Cilicia, proposing to renew his attack on Antioch the following year. The city was taken, but the citadel defied assault. Axouch was a Turk captured as a child at the Siege of Nicaea, who had been given as a gift to John's father. [11] Anna's husband Nikephoros had little sympathy with her ambitions, and it was his lack of support which doomed the conspiracy. The Byzantine desire to be seen as holding a level of suzerainty over all of the Crusader states was taken seriously, as evidenced by the alarm shown in the Kingdom of Jerusalem when John informed King Fulk of his plan for an armed pilgrimage to the Holy City (1142). [56] There then followed a joint campaign as John led the armies of Byzantium, Antioch, and Edessa against Muslim Syria. [59], In early 1142 John campaigned against the Seljuqs of Iconium to secure his lines of communication through Antalya. He organised a number of disputations between Greek and Latin theologians. That Isaac was seeking aid from these princes in a bid to take the Byzantine throne by force is highly likely. [50] He then marched for the final time against the Danishmend Turks, his army proceeding along the southern coast of the Black Sea through Bithynia and Paphlagonia. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. Irene was born in 1088. However, despite being given the highest of court titles, that of sebastokrator, Isaac later became estranged from his brother and became an active conspirator. Alejo was born in 1048, in Estambul, Turquía. Thanks to his energetic campaigning, Turkish attempts at expansion in Asia Minor were halted, and John prepared to take the fight to the enemy. [8], John Axouch was John II's closest adviser and was his only intimate friend. Irene died on August 13, 1134 and was later venerated as Saint Irene. [29], John, alongside his wife who shared in his religious and charitable works, is known to have undertaken church building on a considerable scale, including construction of the Monastery of Christ Pantokrator (Zeyrek Mosque) in Constantinople. She played little part in government, devoting herself to piety and their large brood of children. Joscelin and Raymond conspired to delay the promised handover of Antioch's citadel to the emperor, stirring up popular unrest in the city directed at John and the local Greek community. The hospital was staffed by trained layman doctors rather than monks. Irene retired to a monastery and Anna seems to have been effectively removed from public life, taking up the less active occupation of historian. Also known as "John the Beautiful" or "John the Good", he was the eldest son of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Irene Doukaina and the second emperor to rule during the Komnenian restoration of the Byzantine Empire. In 1137 he conquered Tarsus, Adana, and Mopsuestia from the Principality of Armenian Cilicia, and in 1138 Prince Levon I of Armenia and most of his family were brought as captives to Constantinople. [42], Early in John's reign the Turks were pressing forward against the Byzantine frontier in western Asia Minor. John's campaigns fundamentally changed the balance of power in the east, forcing the Turks onto the defensive and restoring to the Byzantines many towns, fortresses and cities right across the Anatolian peninsula. However, in the space of a few days, his position seemed secure. [35], In 1119–1121 John defeated the Seljuq Turks, establishing his control over southwestern Anatolia. John was a pious and dedicated monarch who was determined to undo the damage his empire had suffered following the Battle of Manzikert, half a century earlier. Consulta los ejemplos de traducción de Juan II Comneno en las frases, escucha la pronunciación y aprende gramática. In 1130 John became aware of a plot involving Isaac and other magnates as he was leaving to campaign against the Turks. [25], John's penchant for interfering with his wife's family, the rulers of Hungary, was problematic. Emperor Alexios had thought him a good companion for his son, and so he had been brought up alongside the prince in the imperial household. The Grand Domestic was the commander in chief of the Byzantine armies. For this reason, he has been called the Byzantine Marcus Aurelius. Alexios' advice on rulership therefore continued to be available to his son, even after the old emperor's death. Only when religion impinged directly on imperial policy, as in relations with the papacy and the possible union of the Greek and Latin churches, did John take an active part. [23] Lothair's successor Conrad III was approached in 1140 for a royal German bride for John's youngest son Manuel. John had little choice but to leave Syria with his ambitions only partially realised. The Mousai are addressed directly to John II and exhort him, amongst other things, to maintain justice during his reign and a full treasury. A permanent synod in Constantinople investigated the writings of a deceased monk named Constantine Chrysomallos which had been circulating in certain monasteries. However, Alexios' influential wife, Irene, favoured the Caesar Nikephoros Bryennios, the husband of her eldest child Anna Komnene. Fulk cited the inability of his largely barren kingdom to support the passage of a substantial army. [69], John II Komnenos married Princess Piroska of Hungary (renamed Irene), a daughter of King Ladislaus I of Hungary in 1104; the marriage was intended as compensation for the loss of some territories to King Coloman of Hungary. Regions that had been lost to the empire since the Battle of Manzikert were recovered and garrisoned. By the time of his death substantial territories had been recovered, and the goals of the recovery of control over central Anatolia and the re-establishment of a frontier on the Euphrates seemed achievable. [15] After a challenging campaign, the details of which are obscure, the emperor managed to defeat the Hungarians and their Serbian allies at the fortress of Haram or Chramon, which is the modern Nova Palanka; many Hungarian troops were killed when a bridge they were crossing collapsed as they were fleeing from a Byzantine attack. This thwarted ambition is probably what disillusioned Isaac with his brother's rule. Further Byzantine military successes, Choniates mentions several engagements, resulted in a restoration of peace. Dirigió personalmente numerosas campañas contra los Turcos selyucidas en Asia Menor. [28], The reign of John II was taken up with almost constant warfare and, unlike his father who delighted in active participation in theological and doctrinal disputes, John appears to have been content to leave ecclesiastical matters to the Patriarch and the church hierarchy. John personally conducted approximately twenty five sieges during his reign. [51][52][53], In the Levant, the emperor sought to reinforce Byzantine claims to suzerainty over the Crusader States and to assert his rights over Antioch. Isaac then became the guest of Masoud, the Seljuk Sultan of Rum, and subsequently of Leo, the Prince of Cilician Armenia. Members of his court were expected to restrict their conversation to serious subjects only. John was a pious and dedicated monarch who was determined to undo the damage his empire had suffered … En el sudeste, Juan extendió el control bizantino desde el Meandro hasta Cilicia y Tarso. These invaders had been auxiliaries of the Prince of Kiev. However, the Hungarians treated this interference as a fighting matter. [34], Though he fought a number of notable pitched battles, the military strategy of John II relied on taking and holding fortified settlements in order to construct defensible frontiers. [58] The emperor was distracted by a Seljuq raid on Cilicia and developments in the west, where he was pursuing a German alliance directed against the threat posed by the Normans of Sicily. 1143). Raymond also wanted to hold on to Antioch, which he had agreed to hand over to John if the campaign was successful in capturing Aleppo, Shaizar, Homs, and Hama. Bulgaria was an autocephalous see and required a prestigious man as archbishop. Angold, Michael, (1997) The Byzantine Empire 1025–1204, a political history, Longman, (Second Edition). Within a year of his accession, however, John II uncovered a conspiracy to overthrow him which implicated his mother and sister. [47] This route was especially important as it also led to Cilicia and the Crusader states of Syria. Juan II intervino en los Balcanes aplastando a los restos de los pechenegos (1122), e intervino también en Hungría y Serbia. Juan II Comneno tradución do dicionario español - galego en Glosbe, dicionario en liña, de balde. [67], Historian John Birkenmeier argued that John's reign was the most successful of the Komnenian period. [39], John's marriage to the Hungarian princess Piroska involved him in the dynastic struggles of the Kingdom of Hungary. Raymond of Poitiers played for time, putting the proposal to the vote of the Antiochene general assembly. [63] John initially ignored the wound and it became infected. [57], Although John fought hard for the Christian cause in the campaign in Syria, his allies Prince Raymond of Antioch and Count Joscelin II of Edessa remained in their camp playing dice and feasting instead of helping to press the siege of the city of Shaizar. [24] At much the same time Roger II applied to John II for an imperial bride for his son, but was unsuccessful. However, immediately afterwards, in 1122, John quickly transferred his troops to Europe to counter a Pecheneg invasion across the Danube frontier into Paristrion. This was necessary to limit the threat posed by the Normans of southern Italy to Byzantine territory in the Balkans. [4], John was famed for his piety and his remarkably mild and just reign. Con la idea de demostrar el ideal bizantino del papel del emperador como líder de la Cristiandad, Juan se dirigió a la Siria musulmana a la cabeza de las fuerzas combinadas del Imperio y de los Estados Cruzados. Attached to the monastery was a hospital, of 5 wards, open to people of all social classes. John II and Irene had 8 children:[70], For other people named John Komnenos, see, Monastery of Christ Pantocrator, Constantinople. [27], In the Crusader states of the Levant it was generally admitted that the Byzantine claims over Antioch were legally valid, though it was pragmatically viewed that only when the Byzantine emperor was in a position to enforce them militarily were they likely to be recognised in practice. Indeed, an extant collection of political advice couched in poetic form, called the Mousai, are attributed to Alexios I. In the southeast, John extended Byzantine control from the Maeander in the west all the way to Cilicia and Tarsus in the east. In 1134 the Seljuq sultan Masoud provided troops for John's attack on the Danishmend-held city of Kastamuni (reoccupied immediately after the Byzantine conquest of 1133), however, the alliance proved unreliable as the Seljuq troops abandoned the expedition, decamping during the night. [1] In the course of the quarter-century of his reign, John made alliances with the Holy Roman Empire in the west, decisively defeated the Pechenegs, Hungarians and Serbs in the Balkans, and personally led numerous campaigns against the Turks in Asia Minor. İoannes Komnenos (tr); ヨアニス2世コムニノス (ja); Иоанн II Красивый, Иоанн Комнен, Иоанн II Комнен (ru); Ιωάννης Β´ Κομνηνός, Ιωάννης Β' Κομνηνός (el); Johannes 02 Komnenos (sv); Janez II. Esta página se editó por última vez el 19 oct 2020 a las 07:57. The triumph that John celebrated following his capture of Kastamuni in 1133 can be seen as being a public affirmation of John's legitimacy as emperor embodied in the celebration of the defeat of external foes. These were men who had been politically eclipsed during the ascendancy exercised by John's mother in the later years of the reign of Alexios I. The monastery also served as the imperial sepulchre for the Komnenian dynasty. However, the Greeks of the interior of Anatolia were becoming increasingly accustomed to Turkish rule and often found it preferable to that of Byzantium. It has been suggested that John was assassinated by a conspiracy within the units of his army of Latin origins who were unhappy at fighting their co-religionists of Antioch, and who wanted to place his pro-western son Manuel on the throne. [42] The Hungarians attacked Belgrade, Nish and Sofia; John, who was near Philippopolis in Thrace, counterattacked, supported by a naval flotilla operating on the Danube. Descriptions of him and his actions indicate that he had great self-control and personal courage, and was an excellent strategist and general. John II and Axouch the Grand Domestic besieged and recaptured Laodicea in 1119 and took Sozopolis by storm in 1120, re-opening land communication with Attaleia. Having secured his route, John embarked on a new expedition into Syria determined to reduce Antioch to direct imperial rule. Fittingly, John's close friend John Axouch, although he is recorded as having tried hard to persuade the dying emperor that Isaac was the better candidate to succeed, was instrumental in ensuring that Manuel's assumption of power was free from any overt opposition. [17], John's unwillingness to allow his family to influence his government to any great extent was to remain constant for the rest of his reign. John then besieged but failed to take the city of Neocaesarea, in 1140. [6] By the example of his personal morality and piety he effected a notable improvement in the manners of his age. Axouch wisely declined and his influence ensured that Anna's property was eventually returned to her and that John II and his sister became reconciled, at least to a degree. The Hungarians, led by Stephen II, then invaded Byzantium's Balkan provinces in 1127, with hostilities lasting until 1129; however, an alternative chronology has been suggested with the Hungarian attack and Byzantine retaliation taking place in 1125 with a renewal of hostilities in 1126. These problems were left for his gifted and mercurial son, Manuel, to attempt to solve. [37] The Serbian campaign may have taken place between two distinct phases in the war against Hungary. In order to restore the region to Byzantine control, he led a series of well planned and executed campaigns against the Turks, one of which resulted in the reconquest of the ancestral home of the Komnenoi at Kastamonu (Kastra Komnenon); he then left a garrison of 2,000 men at Gangra.

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