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sitophilus oryzae ciclo de vida

Annals of Applied Biology, 39(1):68-180, Hussain I, Bin, Haines CP, Pranata RI, 1985. Annis and Morton (1997) reported acute mortality for all life stages of S. oryzae exposed to 15-100% carbon dioxide at 25°C and 60% RH. On the use of iodofenphos to control some grain insects in Tunisia. Journal of Stored Products Research, 23(4):233-238, Singh B, Kumar R, Katiyar RR, 1998. Resistance to Sitophilus oryzae in wheat and associated grain characteristics. Many workers subsequently recognized that two distinct forms of the species existed, which were described as the 'large' and 'small' forms. Many workers subsequently recognized that two distinct forms of the species existed, which were described as the 'large' and 'small' forms. Insect and mite pests in food: An Illustrated Key, Vols I and II. Labdev Journal of Science and Technology, B, 12(1):3-4, Karunakaran C, Jayas DS, White NDG, 2003. The eggs are shiny, white, opaque and ovoid to pear-shaped. Effect of threshing different sorghum cultivars on Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) Journal of Stored Products Research, 35(3):265-276; 35 ref, Trematerra P, Gentile P, Djikoloum T, 2003. Yoon et al. Takahashi in 1928 and 1931 complicated matters by raising the small form to specific status as Calandra sasakii. Crop residues as a reservoir of pests of stored rice. Biharean Biologist. Brady, E. U.; Brower, J. H.; Hunter, P. E.; Jay, E. G.; Lum, P. T. M.; Lund, H. O.; Mullen, M. A.; Davis, R. (Organisers): Proceedings of the First International Working Conference on Stored-Product Entomology, Savannah, Georgia, USA, October 7-11, 1974. The mortality of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at moderate temperatures. Maize weevil (Sitophilus zea-mays Motschulsky). Journal of Stored Products Research, 13(2):53-58, Damcevski KA, Annis PC, Waterford CJ, 1998. Grain may be protected by the admixture of insecticide. 25 (1), 53-56. Soluble phenolic content as an indicator of sorghum grain resistance to Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Su color es ligeramente más oscuro que el gorgojo del arroz aunque ésta no es una característica que permita diferenciarlos, para ello es necesario disectar su genitalia para corrob… et le charancon du riz (Sitophilus oryzae L.). Insect traps tested as an aid to pest management in milled rice stores. Para más información acerca de las materias activas ver la sección de “productos almacenados y almacenes” en “listado de plaguicidas 2012” a la izquierda de la página. Antenas acodadas terminadas en maza. Journal of Stored Products Research, 40(3):241-249.!&_cdi=5099&view=c&_acct=C000000593&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=3796239&md5=35299199745821420ef2bee0db5a3c0c, Berger HK, Hetfleis M, 1985. Crop Protection, 15(3):289-294; 36 ref, Chunni Ram, Singh VS, 1996. Passer domesticus , Turdus merula, Sturnus spp. In India, stored rice (unhusked) samples, drawn from six districts of Himachal Pradesh, were infested with S. oryzae (69%); the average weight loss in storage was 2.11%, and ranged from 1.09% to 3.10% (Thakur and Sharma, 1996). The detailed map plotted on the basis of actual country records gives a falsely restricted distribution. In the tropics, cereal grain insects including S. oryzae cause an estimated overall yield loss of up to 30%, especially under inadequate storage methods (Singh and Benazet, 1974). Control of stored-product moths and beetles by suboptimum temperatures. Thus, the information given below may be taken as generally applicable to both species, but it should be remembered that there may be specific differences in details. Suweba (mud bin) storage of grains in the Sudan. The effect of feeding by larvae and adults of S. oryzae on the weight of rice and wheat grain was determined in laboratory tests. Two strains of Calandra oryzae L. (Coleoptera). Florida Entomologist, 64(1):198-199, Mishchenko AA, Malinin OA, Mashkei IA, Semernina EE, Rashkovan VM, Basteev AV, Bazima LA, Mazalov YuP, Kutovoi VA, 2000. Urban areas landscaped with ornamental palms, especially Canary Islands date palms (Phoenix canariensis), are particularly vulnerable to incursion by invasive palm weevils, Rhynchophorus spp. Trematerra and Girgenti (1989) investigated the influence of pheromone and food attractants on trapping S. oryzae. Agricultural Journal, 2(2):204-209., Olalquiaga FG, 1980. Journal of Stored Products Research, 36(1):1-13, Floyd EH, Newsom LD, 1959. Eggs are laid at temperatures between 15 and 35°C (with an optimum around 25°C) and at grain moisture contents over 10%; however, rates of oviposition are very low below 20°C or above 32°C, and below about 12% moisture content (Birch, 1944). 2 (2), 204-209. Grain stocks may be fumigated with phosphine to eliminate existing infestation, but these treatments provide no protection against re-infestation. Novenyvedelem, 25(4):162-166, Thakur AK, 1999. Tropical Science, 37(1):28-34; 10 ref, Sharma RK, 1999. Studies on phosphine fumigation of wheat bag-stacks under different storage conditions for controlling phosphine - resistant insects. Seed Research, 21(2):72-77; 14 ref, Kuschel G, 1961. A mixture of fenitrothion, esfenvalerate and piperonyl butoxide was found to be effective against S. oryzae in stored rice until 180 days after treatment (Pinto et al., 1997). A number of plant extracts have been tested for activity against S. oryzae including Ocimum basilicum, Capsicum frutescens, Piper guineense, Tetrapleura tetraptera and Eichhornia crassipes (Gakuru and Foua-Bi, 1996); Dicoma sessiliflora and Neorautanenia mitis (Chimbe and Galley, 1996); Ricinus communis (Mahgoub and Ahmed, 1996); Labrador tea (Ignatowicz and Wesolowska, 1996); Melilotus officinalis and M. albus (Ignatowicz, 1997); Withania somnifera (El-Lakwah et al., 1997); Gardenia fosbergii (Kestenholz and Stevenson, 1998); many Asteraceae (Ignatowicz, 1998); Thujopsis dolabrata var. Planococcus citri (= Pseudococcus citri), capricornio oloroso, longicornio del sauce, carpocapsa, agusanado de peras y manzanas, chinche de los cereales, garrapatillo del trigo, parpaja, chinche de los cereales, sampedrito, paulillón, esfinge de la muerte, esfinge de la calavera, gorgojo de las castañas, gusano de las castañas, hoplocampa, falso gusano del ciruelo y del peral, lixus de las habas, gorgojo de las malvas, mosca blanca de la col o de las crucíferas, mosca de la cebolla, mosca de los sembrados y mosca de la col, polilla India de la harina, polilla bandeada, polilla mediterránea de la harina, polilla gris, pulgón de la avena, pulgón de los cereales, pulgón del guisante, pulgón de las leguminosas o de la alfalfa, pulgón negro de la madera, pulgón de la madera del ciruelo, pulgón verde del maíz, pulgón de los cereales, tortrícido del chopo, perforador de las yemas, minador del chopo, tuercebrotes. Eggs, Larvae and Pupae The correlation between insect fragments and total infestation was positive up to a certain infestation level (varying with grain type and insect species) but became negative when infestation exceeded that level. Conservazione dei cereali mediante l'impiego di atmosfere modificate prodotte in loco. Kumawat K C, 2007. Journal of Research ANGRAU. Voracious feeding on whole grains by this insect results in weight loss, fungal growth, quality loss through an increase in free fatty acids and it can even completely destroy stored grain in all types of storage. Evaluation of insecticides for control of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fab.) The results showed that all larvae and adults of S. oryzae were collected. According to Rubbi and Begum (1986), in Bangladesh the population of Sitotroga cerealella was highest, followed by S. oryzae and then Rhyzopertha dominica, and the percentage loss in weight of the rice followed the same order.Sittisuang and Imura (1987) reported that brown rice lost 19% of initial kernel weight over 14 weeks of infestation with S. oryzae. La larva completa su ciclo dentro del grano, donde a continuación pupa, saliendo al exterior ya como adulto tras practicar un orificio de salida. Ecossistema, 22:120-121, Furiatti RS, Pereira PRVS, Pinto ARJr, Lazzari FA, 1999. Bulletin OILB/SROP. The rates of carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption by adult S.oryzae on wheat indicated that caution was needed when interpreting fumigant dosage/response data obtained in sealed systems where carbon dioxide concentrations exceed about 1% and changes in respiratory physiology start to occur (Damcevski et al., 1998). Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 71(7):135-137, Trematerra P, Fontana F, Mancini M, 1996. It does not often breed in non-cereal foods, although it does attack split peas and pasta. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 36(3):215-223; 28 ref, Benhalima H, Chaudhry M Q, Mills K A, Price N R, 2004. Relative resistance of some sorghum varieties to the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Efficacy of neem products against storage pests in maize. Pest Management and Economic Zoology, 4(1/2):97-100; 5 ref, Thind BB, Muggleton J, 1981. A male aggregation pheromone attracts both sexes in S. oryzae (Phillips and Burkholder, 1981). Cost and risk analysis of heat and chemical treatments. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 13(2):5-11; 13 ref, Bandyopadhyay B, Ghosh MR, 1999. Análisis de Benefício: Costo para acciones de protección fitosanitaria en Centroamerica N.1. Normalmente, um ovo é depositado dentro de cada grão. Indian Journal of Entomology, 65(1):143-145, Phillips JK, Burkholder WE, 1981. 38-39. Proceedings of the North Central Branch of the Entomological Society of America, 33:29, Borikar PS, Tayde DS, 1979. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 22(4):585-593, Squire FA, 1972. In various locations, one species may be more common than the other. The relative resistance of 36 improved and local sorghum varieties were also assessed in Nigeria (at Samaru) (Bamaiyi et al., 1998). Evaluation of material from plants of medicinal importance in Malawi as protectants of stored grain against insects. The utilization of botanical dusts in the control of foodstuff storage insect pests in Kivu (Democratic Republic of Congo). (1990) confirmed the activity of 4S,5R sitophinone and 2S,3R-sitophilate for S. oryzae, S. zeamais and S. granarius using electro-antennogram-recordings. Rajendran S, Gunasekaran N, Muralidharan N, 2001. (844) 411 02 36. Compendium record. Pesticide Research Journal. Plant Protection Bulletin (Faridabad), 49(1/4):44-47; 7 ref, Kamel AH, Zewar MM, 1973. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in stored rice. Sitophius granarius es el gorgojo del trigo, se distingue de los otros dos al no presentar manchas amarillentas en los élitros, además estos están soldados y no puede volar. Journal of Stored Products Research. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 14(2):181-182, Saravanan L, Gujar GT, 2006. S. zeamais and S. oryzae are found in all warm and tropical parts of the world, but S. oryzae may also be found in temperate climates. First described by Linnaeus in 1798 as Curculio oryza, the first named species of the group was later revised by De Clairville and Scheltenburg in 1798 as Calandra oryzae, which uses the commonest generic synonym for Sitophilus. Es muy difícil de distinguir de Sitophilus zeamais, cuyo tamaño es ligeramente superior y prefiere el maíz. Con el producto cosechado los adultos prefieren alimentarse de granos partidos, aunque pueden dañar también los sanos. In Egypt, weight losses attributable to S. oryzae and S. granarius in grain stored, under natural conditions, at 25°C and 70% RH, were about 79-81% in barley (Koura and El-Halfawy, 1972).Maize La limpieza del lugar antes de introducir el grano se puede llevar a cabo mediante pulverización a base de metil pirimifos. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Unfortunately, few workers recognized this revision and the name Calandra oryzae continued to be applied to all insects in this complex. Entomological Problems in Bolivia. Therefore the only true and unconfused synonym of S. oryzae is Calandra sasakii; in pre-1960s literature, C. oryzae 'small' and 'large' forms could refer to either S. zeamais or S. oryzae, and it is also possible that some references to 'S. Journal of Stored Products Research, 34(4):331-339; 21 ref, De D, Prakash S, 1989. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases - 1998: Volume 2: Proceedings of an International Conference, Brighton, UK, 16-19 November 1998., 543-548; 6 ref, Khan M, Shahjahan RM, 1998. Journal of Stored Products Research, 36(4):341-353; 17 ref, Longstaff BC, 1981. Doses of Ú1.0 kGy resulted in 100% mortality within 3-6 days for S. granarius, and within 4 days for S. oryzae (Ignatowicz, 1997). Journal of Applied Entomology, 110(2):203-213, Likhayo PW, Hodges RJ, 2000. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7(3):296-299; 8 ref, Kurdikeri MB, Aswathaiah B, Rajendraprasad S, Katgal RD, Aswathanarayana SC, 1993. Kestenholz C, 2001. Shitophylus oryzae se desarrolla a una temperatura comprendida entre los 15-34ºC, siendo el rango óptimo de 27 a 31ºC y con una humedad relativa superior al 40%. (1996) reported that alcohol extracts of Azadirachta indica were superior to aqueous extracts providing 100% protection to rice grains for 6 weeks at a concentration of 1%. A WB Probe II Trap was used to monitor insect activity in grains in the laboratory at 24±1°C and 70±5% RH (Trematerra, 1998). The activity of some compounds extracts by Allium on stored-product insects Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Bulletin of Grain Technology, 15(2):126-129, Bhuiyah MIM, Islam N, Begum A, Karim MA, 1990. Report of the FAO global survey of pesticide susceptibility of stored grain pests. Species of insects attacking different types of stored wheat and their control. Resistance of sorghum to Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and its association with varietal parameters. Journal of Stored Products Research, 33(2):115-124; 20 ref, Asanov K, 1970. On the insect fauna and their diseases in several old mills in Kosova County, Yugoslavia. (1998) screened 15 varieties of maize and Thakur (1999) and Thakur and Sharma (1996) screened 20 rice varieties.Biological Control Dried cassava chips, an important reservoir for stored-product insects in Central Africa. Pesticide Research Journal, 13(1):42-47, Rajkumar R, Anitha TN, 1998. 7 (5), 344-349. Revista Chilena de Entomologia, 10:101-102, Omar EE, Kamel AH, 1980. In these revisions it was shown that Linnaeus originally described the smaller species and that Motschulsky's description of the larger species was valid. Informatore Fitopatologico, 33(12):27-30, George J, Ravishankar GA, Pereira J, Divakar S, 1999. According to Kamel and Zewar (1973), an increase of 1% in mean infestation resulted in a decrease of 0.35% in the weight of maize kernels and a 0.41% weight decrease in millet kernels. There are four larval instars: in English wheat at 25°C and 70% RH, pupation occurs after about 25 days, although development periods are extremely protracted at low temperatures (e.g. Loss of protein due to insect feeding in maize (Zea mays L.). The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. La ventilación de productos almacenados es muy importante, a fin de evitar aumentos de humedad o temperatura A menor humedad del grano, mayor dificultad para hacer la puesta y desarrollarse la larva, por debajo del 10% de humedad relativa del grano Sitophilus es incapaz de ovipositar el huevo. Sitophilus spp. 40 (3), 241-249.!&_cdi=5099&view=c&_acct=C000000593&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=3796239&md5=35299199745821420ef2bee0db5a3c0c DOI:10.1016/S0022-474X(03)00012-2. Insecticidal and acaricidal activity of carvacrol and -thujaplicine derived from Thujopsis dolabrata var. Ahn YoungJoon, Lee SeongBaek, Lee HoiSeon, Kim GilHa, 1998. For S. oryzae some diatomaceous earths had increased efficacy at lower temperatures and others had decreased efficacy at lower temperatures (Fields and Korunic, 2000).Temperature Anais da Sociedade Entomolo^acute~gica do Brasil, 26(2):285-290; 10 ref, Purrini K, 1976. Assessment of storage losses in rice in Himachal Pradesh. Storage and household pests. Carbonyl sulfide (as gas), carbon disulfide (as liquid) and ethyl formate (aqueous solution) were tested as fumigants in silos of wheat in Australia. Trematerra P, Gentile P, Djikoloum T, 2003. Singh et al. The larva is white, stout and legless. Influence of intact and damaged cereal kernels on the behaviour of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Damage of rough and brown rice by four stored-product insect species. hondai (Ahn et al., 1998); Eucalyptus tereticornis (Khan and Shahjahan, 1998); Allium sp. Usually red-brown, dull with coarse microsculpture. Utida, S. 1971. Use of essential oils of aromatic plants as protectant of grains during storage. Imti and Zudir (1997) reported the efficacy of neem leaf and kernel powders. Si se opta por la fumigación, los productos a emplear son fosfuro de hidrogeno o fosfuro de magnesio. Losses in stored grains of five high-yielding hybrid varieties of maize were determined in Uttar Pradesh, India, by Karan Singh et al. The biology of the rice weevil, Calandra oryzae (L.). Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. An introductory study of storage insect pests in Iran. Repellent properties of Cassia sophera L. (Cesalpiniaceae) against the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera; Curculionidae) and the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera; Bruchidae). Invasion by this primary pest may cause grain heating and may facilitate the establishment of fungal colonies, secondary insect pests, and mite pests.S. La colocación de trampas de caída colocadas en los montones de grano o en la superficie permite realizar un seguimiento de las poblaciones y determinar el momento oportuno de los posibles tratamientos. Local and improved corns (Zea mays) in small farm agriculture in Belize, C.A. 19:15-28; 24 ref, Ignatowicz S, Wesolowska B, 1996. Anzeiger fu^umlaut~r Scha^umlaut~dlingskunde, 72(5):122-125; 27 ref, Trivelli H dell'Orto, Dell'Orto Trivelli H, 1975. Both species are able to breed on dried cassava and have been reported as frequent pests of this commodity. Influence of open lemma. Hamel D, 2007. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Phosphine resistance in stored-product insects collected from various grain storage facilities in Morocco. The genus Sitophilus and its species may be identified using the keys of Gorham (1987) or Haines (1991). (1998) used conductive heating to quickly obtain and maintain moderate temperatures in grain while minimizing grain moisture loss (Beckett et al., 1998).RadiationS. Journal of Economic Entomology. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Journal of Stored Products Research, 33(1):31-38, Nelson SO, Bartley PG Jr. , Lawrence KC, 1997. As larvas alimentam-se do interior do grão até à pupação, após a qual abrem um buraco e emergem. Field monitoring Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using refuge and flight traps baited with synthetic pheromone and cracked wheat. Efficacy of insecticides to control Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae) in stored wheat. Journal of Research ANGRAU, 33(4):96-102, Wakefield ME, 1998. Cahiers Agricultures, 12(1):23-31, Nakakita H, Ikenaga H, Shaaya E (ed. oryzae' in the 1960s and early 1970s literature actually relate to S. zeamais misidentified by use of old keys. The acute mortality effects of carbon dioxide on various life stages of Sitophilus oryzae. (See also S. This confused situation continued until 1959, when Floyd and Newsom (1959) revised the complex; this was followed by a further revision by Kuschel (1961). Transactions of the ASAE, 46(3):739-745, Kestenholz C, 2001. Stored-product protection - pests and their control. A survey in Uttar Pradesh, India, showed that the weight loss after storage for 6 months varied from 0.06 to 9.7%, and the loss in viability from 7.0% to 22.0%. The relative resistances of 36 improved and local sorghum varieties were assessed in Nigeria (Bamaiyi et al., 1998). Karunakaran C, Jayas D S, White N D G, 2003. The efficacy of linalool, a major component of freshly-milled Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae), for protection against postharvest damage by certain stored product Coleoptera. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 13(4):241-244, Letellier C, Haubruge E, Gaspar C, 1994. The biology of S. zeamais and S. oryzae has been reviewed in detail by Longstaff (1981). Portada   Quienes somos   Contacto   Publicidad, Autographa gamma (=Plusia gamma), Chrysodeixis chalcites, Chrysomela menthastri (= Chrysolina herbacea). Extent of seed damage, loss in weight and loss of viability due to infestation of the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae Linn. Agricultural Journal. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 35(1):553-566; 20 ref, Evans NJ, 1985. Blue aleurone-layered barleys produced slightly fewer progeny of S. oryzae than the white aleurone-layered barleys. Loss in weight in stored corn and millet due to Sitophilus oryzae and Rhizopertha dominica infestations. Laboratory studies were conducted on different sorghum varieties (Leuschner and Manthe, 1996) to study the relationship between resistance to S. oryzae and grain nutrient content (Torres et al., 1996). Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 18(1):67-73, Birch LC, 1944. Rapid assessment of the insecticidal value of diatomaceous earths without conducting bioassays. Abdulahi A, Haile A, 1991. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 65(1/2):61-67; 16 ref, Imti B, Zudir T, 1997. Studies on phosphine fumigation of wheat bag-stacks under different storage conditions for controlling phosphine - resistant insects. Influence of pheromone and food attractants on trapping of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Col., Curculionidae): a new trap. Journal of Stored Products Research, 27(4):213-220, Wongo LE, Pedersen JR, 1990. (Hulluka, 1991). Disturbance of the grain causes adult Sitophilus spp. Gardenia spp. S. oryzae and S. zeamais can be separated from S. granarius by the presence of wings beneath the elytra (absent in S. granarius) and by having circular, rather than oval, punctures on the prothorax. Grain storage in Ghana. Agricultural Research Review, 51(1):29-31, Karan Singh, Agrawal NS, Girish GK, 1974. FAO Plant Production and Protection Series No. 75:iii + 63 pp. Cahiers Agricultures, 5(1):39-42, Ganesalingam VK, 1977. Este último es más frecuente en trigo, aunque las tres especies pueden atacar a cualquier cereal. The maximum weight loss caused to single kernels by individual larvae was 57% for rice and 19% for wheat (Banerjee and Nazimuddin, 1985). Comparative resistance of barleys as influenced by location source, aleurone layer, and protein levels. (1997, 1998).Host-Plant Resistence There may be some potential for the development of pest management strategies that favour the action of natural parasites.Botanical extracts Tilley D R, Langemeier M R, Casada M E, Arthur F H, 2007. Both have the characteristic rostrum and elbowed antennae of the family Curculionidae. Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in samples from warehouse and insect cadavers. Treatment of pesticides in a weak electromagnetic field. Paper American Society of Agricultural Engineers, No. Irradiation of grains. In 12 districts of the Indian Punjab, after about 8-10 months storage on the farm, the weight loss was about 2.5% (Bhardwaj et al., 1977). Eight land races of sorghum collected in Ethiopia showed significant variation by genotype in soluble phenolic content suggesting that the soluble phenolic content could be used as an indicator of resistance (Ramputh et al., 1999).Chunni and Singh (1996) evaluated 64 wheat varieties for resistance to S. oryzae. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. CAB Abstracts Data Mining., CABI, Undated. Ciencias de la Agricultura, No. Scutellum usually with lateral elevations closer together than their length and evidently more than half as long as scutellum. Insects in paddy and rice in storage in the Kandy District. The incubation period of the egg is about 6 days at 25°C (Howe, 1952). In stored maize, heavy infestations of these pests may cause weight losses of up to 30-40%, although losses are commonly 4-5%. Sharma (1999) suggested that neem products can be mixed with stored maize to protect the grains up to 9 months from the attack of the major pests. Total development periods range from about 35 days under optimal conditions to over 110 days in unfavourable conditions (Birch, 1944; Howe, 1952). Color marrón oscuro a casi negro, con el protórax cubierto de depresiones circulares y un pico prominente. Current Agricultural Research, 9(1/2):89-93; 11 ref, Mould HA, 1973. Singh et al. Research on the control of insect and rodent pests of wheat in Ethiopia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Chimbe CM, Galley DJ, 1996. Mishchenko A A, Malinin O A, Mashkeĭ I A, Semernina E E, Rashkovan V M, Basteev A V, Bazima L A, Mazalov Yu P, Kutovoĭ V A, 2000. 32:63-67; 10 ref, Haines CP, 1991. Both hatching and metamorphosis of each species were inhibited at 10°C.

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